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Book: Lying
  • Intetionally misleading others when they expect honest communication.

  • The intent to communicate honestly is a measure of truthfulness

  • Lying can be by commission or omission.

  • By holding secrets, one is often forced to lie.

    • Hence this acts as a burden
    • One way to be honest when keeping secrets is to reveal that we cannot reveal.
      • Ex: “Even if I knew I will not tell you, I’d rather not say etc”
  • Lying in extreme cases such as self-defense or in defense of another makes sense

    • This is because we prioritize human life over damage by lying.
    • Even then, one can reveal that we cannot reveal.
Book: Lying,